The hottest news said that the reform of railway f

2022-09-20
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According to the news, the railway freight reform has been launched, and the national leaders have paid attention to and made comments.

the new version of "railway boss" wagon business experience "

set up freight service representatives and implement" buy it now "

three railway system sources confirmed to this newspaper that the railway freight reform has been started

in April, China Railway Corporation (hereinafter referred to as "China Railway Corporation") has formed a new freight business template and launched a new business process of preparation and training for the whole railway bureau. In May, general manager shengguangzu announced that the Railway General Manager officially entered the freight reform period, and said that this is the most important topic of the Railway General Manager at present. The source pointed out that the national leaders of the freight reform were extremely concerned and had relevant instructions

according to this newspaper, the 18 railway bureaus under the general railway administration have made different progress in freight reform, and important coal transportation bureaus such as Taiyuan Railway Bureau and Hohhot Railway Bureau and Kunming bureau have taken the lead

a person in charge of freight transportation in Taiyuan Bureau said that with the new progress in the testing of new materials and their mechanical properties in the Railway Bureau, the changes that can be seen at present can be simply summed up in two ways. First, the mode of "people asking for me" in the past has changed. Follow the example of commercial banks and Unicom and other companies to set up freight service representatives, who are fully responsible for customers' various business handling and planning applications; Second, in the past, all kinds of miscellaneous freight charges were unified as "buy it now", which was collected by the newly established freight marketing company at one time to avoid power rent-seeking

people close to the railway administration commented that the above-mentioned adjustment of the Railway Bureau has reflected the direction of market-oriented reform. The railway reform, which began with the separation of the Ministry of railways, has affected front-line railway workers from top to bottom

"however, the reform of these (1) qualified national inspection reports is still superficial," he said. A practical problem is that the freight volume of the railway fell by 1.2% in the first quarter, especially the decline in coal transportation. The problem of insufficient railway transport capacity in China has not been fundamentally solved. The current phased oversupply may promote the railway to change its style and promote reform, but once the relationship between supply and demand is reversed, the reform may be further hindered

the reform of the freight pricing mechanism has not made progress for the time being. The source said that the general railway administration hopes to follow the example of civil aviation and set a "ceiling" price. The general railway administration decides the specific discount according to the market supply and demand of each line, but in the medium and short term, the marketization process of the general railway administration is expected to be inferior to that of central enterprises such as PetroChina and Sinopec

attempts of coal transportation bureaus

according to the aforementioned Taiyuan Railway Bureau, in April, the Railway Bureau has organized and learned the new business operation process, and the new business template was officially implemented on May 1. Different from the usual style of the "iron boss" in the past, the front-line freight workers can't just wait for customers to ask for the car, but should follow the example of the customer service managers of commercial banks, Unicom and other companies to provide one-on-one active service and provide information such as the car plan and transportation progress

the one-stop service being promoted by Taiyuan Bureau is handled by the above freight service representative. For example, in the past, new customers had to run at least fourorfive times to complete the procedures, including registration, applying for the next month's plan, submitting the daily plan after approval, loading and payment, and handling insured insurance. Now these procedures can be handled by the freight service representative at one time. In the past, it was necessary for the cargo owner to run in different departments, but now the handover is completed by the railway itself

"at present, a basic principle is that as long as the owner has goods, we try to load them as soon as possible, so that they are not affected by the railway's own daily plan, monthly plan, etc." The person said

another change is that in the past, various railway charges will be integrated and simplified. The above-mentioned person said that the railway freight charge originally has two parts, one is the charge items determined by the Ministry of Railways in the past, including freight, railway infrastructure construction fund, electrification surcharge, etc., and the other is not clear enough. The charge is the extended service charge charged by each Railway Bureau, such as short-distance logistics transportation connection, etc

this reform will unify the two parts of charges into "buy it now price", check the service cost separately according to the difference of service range and service content, and price it separately to the shipper. The railway will conduct internal segmentation and liquidation by itself, and the cargo owners will no longer pay separately. Both Taiyuan Bureau and Hohhot bureau have established freight marketing companies to be specifically responsible for this matter

the above-mentioned people close to President tie commented that these two changes are mainly two demands, one is to change the behavior style of the "iron boss" in the past, and the other is to reduce links and avoid power rent-seeking. Under the background of continuous tight transport capacity of China's railways, the difficulty of railway plans and indicators has formed a huge rent-seeking space for a long time

the above Taiyuan Bureau said that at present, some railway bureaus have begun to implement new business processes, but some railway bureaus are still in the transition period, and some railway bureaus, such as Xinjiang, are not suitable for implementation temporarily. Due to the outward transportation of a large number of bulk commodities (cotton and agricultural products) in Xinjiang, the transportation capacity is extremely tight

doubts about the sustainability of the reform

several interviewees reminded that there are variables in whether the above freight reform can be continued

the background of the implementation of this freight reform is special. After the separation of the Ministry of railways, although the rear shell of Galaxy S3 is plastic, the market-oriented reform of the railway is the future trend. In addition, in the first quarter of this year, the freight volume of the railway decreased slightly. The first quarter report just released by the general railway administration showed that the after tax profit loss was 6.88 billion yuan, slightly exceeding market expectations

people close to the Railway Corporation reminded that freight transportation is the most important source of profit for the railway corporation. In the past, it has been relying on freight business to subsidize passenger transport losses, and coal transportation accounts for about 60% of China's railway freight volume. The decline of coal transportation is a key factor in the decline of railway freight volume

the aforementioned person from Taiyuan Railway Bureau confirmed that since the second half of last year, the coal transportation of Taiyuan Railway Bureau has declined, and at that time, the freight station had been asked to organize the supply of goods. According to the data provided by Shanxi provincial coal department, the outward transportation volume of Shanxi coal in the first quarter decreased by 2.69 million tons year-on-year, down 2.5%. Affected by this, the railway freight volume in Shanxi fell year-on-year in the first quarter, with a total volume of 126.89 million tons, down 0.58%

several interviewees worry that the freight reform implemented against the background of this phased oversupply of railway capacity may have to be shelved after the reversal of market supply and demand

a typical case is that China also experienced a phased decline in freight transport in 1998. Fu Zhihuan, then Minister of railways, also tried to promote freight marketing and freight transport reform, but after the macroeconomic recovery, the railway freight volume recovered, and everything returned to the original state

"if the tension of transportation capacity does not change, it is difficult to break down the vested interests." People close to the president said

he said that the "buy it now" and freight service representative systems implemented in the freight reform were partly modeled on the U.S. rail freight model. In early 2012, hehuawu, the former chief engineer of the Ministry of railways, led a team to the United States to investigate its railway system

"rail freight services in the United States are extremely meticulous, and supply chain solutions will be developed according to the needs of customers." He said that many of the seven first-class railway companies in the United States have merged with highway transportation companies or have cooperation agreements with highway transportation companies, so railways can also provide door-to-door freight services to shippers. There is still a big gap between the current freight reform of Chinese railways and this

however, the situation of Chinese Railways is quite different from that of the United States. The source said that although the United States also has a large number of transportation of bulk commodities such as coal, high-end container transportation accounts for 40% of the total railway transportation, while China's figure is only 2% - 3%. More importantly, American railway companies only need to face dozens of major customers, while the current situation of Chinese railway is facing a number of small cargo owners like "ant soldiers"

as a direct result, American railway companies can determine an internal price one by one with major customers and sign transportation agreements for several years, while Chinese railways can only adopt the form of public quotation

people close to the railway administration pointed out that at present, the reform will start with freight transportation. In addition to considering that freight transportation is an important source of profit for the railway, it is also concerned that the reform of passenger transportation is difficult to promote, and it is quite sensitive politically and in public opinion

there has been no further progress on how to reform the railway tariff mechanism, which is concerned by the society and other medical equipment. He said that in the past, the Ministry of Railways did not have the decision-making power of freight rates, only the right to recommend freight rates. The decision-making was basically in the national development and Reform Commission, and then reported to the State Council. In the future, whether the general railway administration will completely replace the Ministry of railways and the national development and Reform Commission to negotiate pricing, or whether the National Railway Administration will also participate in it, is still in the game

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